A Basic Breakdown Of Establishing Critical Aspects Of Best Vapor Cigarettes
Illicit cigarette trade filled up the gap left by legal sales. Its penetration rate increased from 36.3% in 2011 to 51% in 2016. This resulted in an estimated loss of RM4.4 billion (US$1.06 billion) in government revenue last year. From the year 2011 to 2015, average cigarette prices went up by more than 30% . If the price hikes do deter consumers, there should have been a corresponding decrease in total cigarette consumption. The Malaysian government needs to relook at its future strategies Attempts to minimise the prevalence of smoking failed due to the absence of policies to restrict black market activities. The government had oversimplified the problem by assuming price hikes would decrease the cigarette consumption in lower income families. However, with cheaper alternatives available, the citizens turned to illegal cigarettes with price tags of RM3 – RM8 (US$0.71 – US$1.89). Customs director-general Datuk T. Subromaniam appeared to be in denial, as he commented , “It (tax increase on cigarettes) is merely a measure to reduce the number of smokers in Malaysia and increase tax revenue. We cannot solely blame taxation for the rise in illicit cigarettes.” On a larger scale, Malaysia’s tobacco industry has taken a hit.
Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 268-276 Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation Author links open overlay panel Kathleen A.Garrisona One of the first longitudinal fMRI studies of smoking cessation treatment in adolescents. Adolescents show increased non-drug reward-related brain activity pre- to post-treatment. Increases in reward-related brain activity were associated with smoking abstinence. Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n = 14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n = 28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment.